A new scholarly paper says many mechanisms related to COVID-19 mRNA vaccines can lead to cancer and neurological issues.Raquel Valdes Angues and Yolanda Perea Bustos published their peer-reviewed findings in Cureus on December 17 under the title, SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination and the Multi-Hit Hypothesis of Oncogenesis. Angues has a PhD and teaches neurology at the Oregon Health and Science University School of Medicine in Portland, while Bustos was educated at the Generalitat de Catalunya in Barcelona, Spain.“After reviewing the available literature, we are particularly concerned that certain COVID-19 vaccines may generate a pro-tumorigenic milieu…that predisposes some (stable) oncologic patients and survivors to cancer progression, recurrence, and/or metastasis,” the authors wrote.“Extreme caution is needed when recommending COVID-19 vaccination (up to five doses) to oncologic patients, especially those undergoing anticancer treatment.”The authors said a well-designed comparison of vaccinated and unvaccinated people does not exist, nor any on animals to understand how COVID-19 vaccination might affect the clinical outcomes of cancer patients. However, the way the vaccines work suggest many avenues for such risks.The authors analyzed the US Vaccine Adverse Effects Report System (VAERS) and found 1,474 entries for COVID-19 that had cancer terms and 534 of these were linked to organs. COVID-19 vaccines accounted for 96% to 97% of all such cases in the timeframe analyzed.“Lymphopenia is a hallmark of both severe COVID-19 and COVID-19 vaccination,” the authors wrote. This is a condition where white blood cells, including T-cells to fight infection, are reduced. “While T-cell exhaustion is observed in other viral infections, it seems to be more rapid, profound, and long-lasting in the setting of COVID-19.”The authors noted the phase one and two clinical trials with the Pfizer and AstraZeneca vaccines “described a dose-dependent decrease in plasma lymphocytes six to eight days post-vaccination in 45% to 46% of participants” and subsequent reports found “an initial surge in infection risk up to nine days following vaccination.”“Remarkably, some types of cancer treatment, such as chemotherapy, radiation, and the combination of chemotherapy and immunotherapy, can also cause severe lymphopenia, which is correlated with reduced survival,” the authors added.The authors warned that because the vaccine caused spike proteins to last for months in the body, ACE2 receptors could be lost and “promote tumor progression.” These receptors are one avenue for viruses to enter a cell.“Remarkably, free-floating spike, S subunits, and S peptide fragments have been found to enter the circulation and persist in the body for weeks and even months following COVID-19 vaccination at concentrations comparable to those found in severe COVID-19 patients.”In addition, “The mRNA vaccines are designed to deactivate the host’s innate immunity via Toll-like receptors (TLRs), compromising type I IFN responses.”TLRs help immune systems to recognize pathogens, but can also inhibit or promote malignancy in tumour cells.Interferons (IFNs) are a group of signaling proteins made and released by host cells in response to the presence of several viruses. Usually, a virus-infected cell will release interferons causing nearby cells to heighten their anti-viral defenses.“Of note, an increasingly high number of herpes zoster cases have been reported following mRNA...COVID-19 vaccination. Such observation is consistent with an impaired TLR-mediated type I IFN response,” the authors reported."“Impairment of type I IFN responses is also observed in other diseases, including chronic infections (i.e., HIV/AIDS) and autoimmune conditions (i.e., multiple sclerosis (MS).”Both HIV and MS patients are at higher risk for cancers, the authors explain. Also, the “codon optimization” used in COVID-19 also leads to dysregulation of some biological processes.“Dysregulation of the RNA G4-protein binding system might dramatically down regulate cellular microRNA expression, which is involved in many pathological conditions such as cardiovascular disease, the onset of neurodegeneration, and cancer progression.” These include amyotrophic lateral sclerosis / frontotemporal dementia, and Fragile X syndrome. This disreguilation also undermines p53, a “well-known tumor suppressor protein.”The authors said the lipid nanpoarticles that carry genetic materials through the mRNA vaccines have been known to be “highly inflammatory in mice” since 2010.“Intradermal injection of these LNPs led to massive infiltration of neutrophils, rapid and robust activation of diverse inflammatory pathways, and production of various inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Intranasal delivery led to similar inflammatory responses in the lung,” the paper explained.“Severe COVID-19 (which affects about 5% of the SARS-CoV-2-infected population) triggers a cytokine storm in pulmonary tissues that may be accompanied by immunopathology, viremia, and systemic multiorgan collapse.”Inflammation is also bad for cancer, the authors say, and “predisposes the development of disease and promotes all stages of tumorigenesis. Around 15% to 20% of all cancer cases are preceded by infection, chronic inflammation, or autoimmunity at the same tissue or organ site.”“Both extrinsic and intrinsic inflammation can result in immunosuppression, thereby providing a preferred background for tumor development.”The authors say new research also suggests that parts of the SARS-CoV-2 genome might lead to permanent changes in the DNA makeup of cells and those they replicate.“LINE-1 retrotransposition is indeed a major hallmark of cancer and correlates with p53 mutations. Importantly, the activation of LINE-1 increases the risk of…metastasis in epithelial cancer, which accounts for 80%-90% of all known human cancers.”In yet another risky mechanism, “The S2 subunit of SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein interacts with tumor suppressor proteins p53 and breast cancer 1/2 (BRCA1/2).“Cancers associated with TP53 mutations include breast cancer, bone and soft tissue sarcomas, brain tumors, and adrenocortical carcinomas. Other less frequent cancers include leukemia, stomach cancer, and colorectal cancer,” the authors explain.“Cancers associated with impaired BRCA1 activity include breast, uterine, and ovarian cancer in females, prostate and breast cancer in males, and a modest increase in pancreatic cancer for both males and females. The most commonly reported cancers with BRCA2 mutations include pancreas, prostate in males, and melanoma.”Malfunctioning p53 levels and “cytoplasmatic sequestration of BRCA1 have also been linked to neuronal dysfunction” and could cause “neurodegenerative diseases” that were “long-latency,” meaning they take a long time to fully manifest.Finally, a cluster of differentiation 147 (CD147) transmembrane protein, a novel entry route for SARS-CoV-2 infection to host cells, is correlated with various cancers. CD147 also relates to “the control of glycolysis.” Dysfunctional glycolysis can disrupt the production of energy, leading to weakness, fatigue, muscle pain, diabetes, cancer, and heart disease.The authors also wanred that a recent study showed that exposure to spike proteins in water was enough to affect adult guppies, causing DNA damage, changes to the liver and brain and suppression of antioxidants. They also referenced a recent paper that suggested some cancer treatments triggered bad responses in COVID-19 vaccine recipients.“CPI immunotherapy resulted in a constant and variable increase of all COVID-19 vaccination side effects, which is alarming.”In the US, cancer deaths peaked in January 2021 (14,284 deaths) and January 2022 (14,845 deaths).“Indisputably, the cancer mortality peaks observed in 2021 and 2022 correlate well with COVID-19’s winter surges. However, they also follow two major COVID-19 vaccination and booster campaigns,” the authors noted.It is unlikely such deaths will be connected to COVID-19 vaccination in death certificates.“Critical errors in death certificates are quite common in the US, with the frequency of errors ranging from 18% to 85% or higher in hospital-based studies,” the authors say.